Author's posts

Mar 21

Heme pathway evolution in kinetoplastid protists.

BACKGROUND: Kinetoplastea is a diverse protist lineage composed of several of the most successful parasites on Earth, organisms whose metabolisms have coevolved with those of the organisms they infect. Parasitic kinetoplastids have emerged from free-living, non-pathogenic ancestors on multiple occasions during the evolutionary history of the group. Interestingly, in both parasitic and free-living kinetoplastids, the …

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Mar 21

Inference of Episodic Changes in Natural Selection Acting on Protein Coding Sequences via CODEML.

This unit provides protocols for using the CODEML program from the PAML package to make inferences about episodic natural selection in protein-coding sequences. The protocols cover inference tasks such as maximum likelihood estimation of selection intensity, testing the hypothesis of episodic positive selection, and identifying sites with a history of episodic evolution. We provide protocols …

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Mar 21

megasat: automated inference of microsatellite genotypes from sequence data.

megasat is software that enables genotyping of microsatellite loci using next-generation sequencing data. Microsatellites are amplified in large multiplexes, and then sequenced in pooled amplicons. megasat reads sequence files and automatically scores microsatellite genotypes. It uses fuzzy matches to allow for sequencing errors and applies decision rules to account for amplification artefacts, including nontarget amplification …

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Mar 21

Discovery of an expanded set of avian leukosis subroup E proviruses in chickens using Vermillion, a novel sequence capture and analysis pipeline.

Transposable elements (TEs), such as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), are common in the genomes of vertebrates. ERVs result from retroviral infections of germ-line cells, and once integrated into host DNA they become part of the host’s heritable genetic material. ERVs have been ascribed positive effects on host physiology such as the generation of novel, adaptive genetic …

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Mar 21

Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2009.

Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST) 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae …

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Mar 21

Osmoadaptative Strategy and Its Molecular Signature in Obligately Halophilic Heterotrophic Protists.

Halophilic microbes living in hypersaline environments must counteract the detrimental effects of low water activity and salt interference. Some halophilic prokaryotes equilibrate their intracellular osmotic strength with the extracellular milieu by importing inorganic solutes, mainly potassium. These “salt-in” organisms characteristically have proteins that are highly enriched with acidic and hydrophilic residues. In contrast, “salt-out” halophiles …

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Mar 21

On the reversibility of parasitism: adaptation to a free-living lifestyle via gene acquisitions in the diplomonad Trepomonas sp. PC1.

BACKGROUND: It is generally thought that the evolutionary transition to parasitism is irreversible because it is associated with the loss of functions needed for a free-living lifestyle. Nevertheless, free-living taxa are sometimes nested within parasite clades in phylogenetic trees, which could indicate that they are secondarily free-living. Herein, we test this hypothesis by studying the …

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Mar 15

The Modern Synthesis in the Light of Microbial Genomics.

We review the theoretical implications of findings in genomics for evolutionary biology since the Modern Synthesis. We examine the ways in which microbial genomics has influenced our understanding of the last universal common ancestor, the tree of life, species, lineages, and evolutionary transitions. We conclude by advocating a piecemeal toolkit approach to evolutionary biology, in …

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Mar 15

Erratum to: On the reversibility of parasitism: adaptation to a free-living lifestyle via gene acquisitions in the diplomonad Trepomonas sp. PC1.

Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. more… Result Filters See comment in PubMed Commons below Xu F1, Jerlström-Hultqvist J1,2, Kolisko M3,4,5, Simpson AG3,6, Roger AJ4,6, Svärd SG1, Andersson JO7. Author information 1 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 2 Present address: Department of Medical …

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Mar 15

Arginine deiminase pathway enzymes: evolutionary history in metamonads and other eukaryotes.

BACKGROUND: Multiple prokaryotic lineages use the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway for anaerobic energy production by arginine degradation. The distribution of this pathway among eukaryotes has been thought to be very limited, with only two specialized groups living in low oxygen environments (Parabasalia and Diplomonadida) known to possess the complete set of all three enzymes. We …

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